[Federal Register Volume 79, Number 140 (Tuesday, July 22, 2014)]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2014-17031]
DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
Federal Aviation Administration
14 CFR Chapter I
[Docket No. FAA-2014-0463]
Policy on the Non-aeronautical Use of Airport Hangars
AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).
ACTION: Notice of Proposed Policy; Request for Comments
SUMMARY: Under Federal law, airport operators that have accepted
federal grants and/or those that have obligations contained in property
deeds for property transferred under various Federal laws such as the
Surplus Property Act generally may use airport property only for
aviation-related purposes unless otherwise approved by the FAA.
Compliance inspections by FAA staff, as well as audits by the
Government Accountability Office, have found that some hangars intended
for aircraft storage are routinely used to store non-aeronautical items
such as vehicles and large household items. In some cases, this storage
interferes with--or entirely displaces--aeronautical use of the hangar.
Moreover, many airports have a waiting list for hangar space, and a
tenant's use of a hangar for non-aeronautical purposes prevents
aircraft owners from obtaining access to hangar storage on the airport.
At the same time, the FAA realizes that storage of some small
incidental items in a hangar that is otherwise used for aircraft
storage will have no effect on the aeronautical utility of the hangar.
The FAA is proposing a statement of policy on use of airport hangars to
clarify compliance requirements for airport sponsors, airport manager,
airport tenants, state aviation officials, and FAA compliance staff.
This notice solicits public comment on the proposed policy statement.
DATES: Send your comments on or before September 5, 2014. The FAA will
consider comments on the proposed policy statement. Any necessary or
appropriate revisions resulting from the comments received will be
adopted as of the date of a subsequent publication in the Federal
ADDRESSES: You may send comments [identified by Docket Number FAA-2014-
0463] using any of the following methods:
Government-wide rulemaking Web site: Go to http://www.regulations.gov and follow the instructions for sending your
Mail: Docket Operations, U.S. Department of
Transportation, West Building, Ground Floor, Room W12-140, Routing
Symbol M-30, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590.
Hand Delivery: To Docket Operations, Room W12-140 on the
ground floor of the West Building, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE.,
Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday,
except Federal holidays.
For more information on the notice and comment process, see the
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this document.
Docket: To read background documents or comments received, go to
http://www.regulations.gov at any time or to Room W12-140 on the ground
floor of the West Building, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC,
between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kevin C. Willis, Manager, Airport
Compliance Division, ACO-100, Federal Aviation Administration, 800
Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20591, telephone (202) 267-
3085; facsimile: (202) 267-4629.
Privacy: We will post all comments we receive, without change, to
http://www.regulations.gov, including any personal information you
provide. Using the search function of our docket Web site, anyone can
find and read the comments received into any of our dockets, including
the name of the individual sending the comment (or signing the comment
for an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's
complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on
April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78).
Availability of Documents
You can get an electronic copy of this Policy and all other
documents in this docket using the Internet by:
(1) Searching the Federal eRulemaking portal (http://www.faa.gov/regulations/search);
(2) Visiting FAA's Regulations and Policies Web page at (http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies; or
(3) Accessing the Government Printing Office's Web page at (http://www.gpoaccess.gov/index.html.
You can also get a copy by sending a request to the Federal
Aviation Administration, Office of Airport Compliance and Management
Analysis, 800 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20591, or by
calling (202) 267-3085. Make sure to identify the docket number, notice
number, or amendment number of this proceeding.
Authority for the Policy
This notice is published under the authority described in Title 49
of the United States Code, Subtitle VII, part B, chapter 471, section
Airport Sponsor Obligations
Airport sponsors that have accepted grants under the Airport
Improvement Program (AIP) have agreed to comply with certain Federal
policies included in each AIP grant agreement as sponsor assurances.
The Airport and Airway Improvement Act of 1982 (AAIA), as amended and
recodified at 49 U.S.C. 47107(a)(1), and the contractual sponsor
assurances require that the airport sponsor make the airport available
for aviation use. Grant assurance 22, Economic Nondiscrimination,
requires the sponsor to make the airport available on reasonable terms
without unjust discrimination for aeronautical activities, including
aviation services. Grant assurance 19, Operation and Maintenance,
prohibits an airport sponsor from causing or permitting any activity
that would interfere with use of airport property for airport purposes.
In some cases, sponsors who have received property transfers through
surplus property and nonsurplus property agreements have similar
The sponsor may designate some areas of the airport for non-
use,\1\ with FAA approval, but aeronautical facilities of the airport
must be dedicated to use for aviation purposes. Limiting use of
aeronautical facilities to aeronautical purposes ensures that airport
facilities are available to meet aviation demand at the airport.
Aviation tenants and aircraft sponsors should not be displaced by non-
aviation commercial uses that could be conducted off of airport
\1\ The terms ``non-aviation'' and ``non-aeronautical'' are used
interchangeably in this Notice.
It is the longstanding policy of the FAA that airport property be
available for aeronautical use and not be available for non-
aeronautical purposes unless that non-aeronautical use is approved by
the FAA. Use of a designated aeronautical facility for a non-aviation
purpose, even on a temporary basis, requires FAA approval. See FAA
Order 5190.6B, Airport Compliance Manual, paragraph 22.6. The
identification of non-aviation use of aeronautical areas receives
special attention in FAA airport compliance inspections. See Order
5190.6B, paragraphs 21.6.e and f(5).
Areas of the airport designated for non-aeronautical use must be
shown on an airport's Airport Layout Plan (ALP). The AAIA, at 49 U.S.C.
47107(a)(16), requires that AIP grant agreements include an assurance
by the sponsor to maintain an ALP in a manner prescribed by the FAA.
Sponsor assurance 29, Airport Layout Plan, implements Sec.
47107(a)(16) and provides that an ALP must designate non-aviation areas
of the airport. The sponsor may not allow an alteration of the airport
in a manner inconsistent with the ALP unless approved by the FAA. See
FAA Order 5190.6B, Airport Compliance Manual, paragraph 7.18, and
Advisory Circular 150/5070-6B, Airport Master Plans, chapter 10.
Clearly identifying non-aeronautical facilities not only keeps
aeronautical facilities available for aviation use, but also assures
that the airport sponsor receives at least Fair Market Value (FMV)
revenue from non-aviation uses of the airport. The AAIA requires that
airport revenues be used for airport purposes, and that the airport
maintain a fee structure that makes the airport as self-sustaining as
possible. 49 U.S.C. 47107(a)(13)(A) and (b)(1). The FAA and the
Department of Transportation Office of the Inspector General have
interpreted these statutory provisions to require that non-aviation
activities on an airport be charged a fair market rate for use of
airport facilities rather than the aeronautical rate. See FAA Policies
and Procedures Concerning the Use of Airport Revenue, Sec. VII.C, 64
FR 7696, 7721(Feb. 16, 1999) (FAA Revenue Use Policy). If an airport
tenant pays an aeronautical rate for a hangar and then uses the hangar
for a non-aeronautical purpose, the tenant may be paying a below-market
rate in violation of the sponsor's obligation for a self-sustaining
rate structure and FAA's Revenue Use Policy. Confining non-aeronautical
activity to designated non-aviation areas of the airport helps to
ensure that the non-aeronautical use of airport property is monitored
and allows the airport sponsor to clearly identify non-aeronautical
fair market value lease rates in order meet their federal obligations.
Identifying non-aeronautical uses and charging appropriate rates for
these uses prevents the sponsor from subsidizing non-aviation
activities with aviation revenues.
The FAA's enforcement of appropriate use of airport property has
been the subject of two audits by the General Accounting Office (now
called Government Accountability Office, or GAO). In August 1980, the
GAO released a report to the Secretary of Transportation entitled
``Misuse of Airport Land Acquired through Federal Assistance.'' This
report highlighted several cases of federally funded land being used
for various non-aeronautical purposes. The report cited a lack of
oversight by FAA and recommended more active involvement in oversight.
In May 1999, the GAO released the report, ``General Aviation Airports:
Unauthorized Land Use Highlights Need for Improved Oversight and
Enforcement''. This report highlighted the need for the FAA to increase
its efforts to monitor airports for unauthorized use of land.
In response to this second report, the FAA began conducting land
use inspections at 18 selected airports each year, at least two in each
of the nine FAA regions. A frequent finding from these inspections has
been the prevalence of non-aeronautical items stored in aircraft
hangars designated for aeronautical use. In some cases, the aircraft
hangars contained only non-aeronautical items, such as automobiles
(including sponsor-owned police cruisers), boats, large recreational
vehicles, etc. In other cases, non-aeronautical items shared space with
legitimate aeronautical use of hangars. Inspections have frequently
uncovered motorcycles, furniture, tools, and other non-aeronautical
items stored in hangars along with aircraft. Some hangar tenants were
found to be operating non-aviation commercial businesses out of an
In May 2011, The Director of the Office of Airport Compliance and
Management Analysis issued a Director's Determination under 14 CFR Part
16,\2\ finding the City in violation of Grant Assurance 19. Operations
and Maintenance by allowing non-aeronautical use of airport hangars for
storing non-aviation items. The FAA ordered the City to submit a
Corrective Action Plan to bring the airport back into compliance. As
part of the City of Glendale's effort to formulate a Corrective Action
Plan, the City requested the FAA to provide written confirmation on the
status of certain items as aeronautical or non-aeronautical. The
agency's July 12, 2012 response to the letter became widely circulated
in the airport community and has been interpreted by some as general
policy. Insofar as that letter suggested that all non-aeronautical
items stored in a hangar would constitute a violation of the grant
assurances, it applied to a specific situation at a specific airport
and does not represent general agency policy.
\2\ Valley Aviation Services, LLP v. City of Glendale, Arizona,
FAA Docket No. 16-09-06 (May 24, 2011) (Director's Determination).
A sponsor's grant assurance obligations require that its
aeronautical facilities be used or be available for use for
aeronautical activities. If the presence of non-aeronautical items in a
hangar does not interfere with these obligations, then the FAA will
generally not consider their presence to constitute a violation of the
sponsor's obligation to provide reasonable access to aeronautical users
and tenants. In cases where excess hangar capacity is unused because of
low aviation demand, a sponsor can request FAA approval for interim
non-aeronautical use of a hangar until that hangar is needed again for
an aeronautical purpose. However, aeronautical use must take priority
and be accommodated over non-aeronautical use even if the rental rate
would be higher for the non-aeronautical use (See FAA Order 5190.6B, ]
22.6). The sponsor is required to charge a fair market commercial
rental rate for any hangar rental or use for non-aeronautical purposes.
Use of Hangars for Fabrication and Assembly of Aircraft
While building an aircraft results in an aeronautical product, the
FAA has not found all stages of the building process to be aeronautical
for purposes of hangar use. A large part of the
construction process can be and often is conducted off-airport. Only
when the various components are assembled into a final functioning
aircraft is access to the airfield necessary.
In Ashton v. City of Concord, NC,\3\ the complainant objected to
the airport sponsor's prohibition of construction of a homebuilt
aircraft in an airport T-hangar. The decision was based on a FAA
determination that aircraft construction is not per se an aeronautical
activity. While final stages of aircraft construction can be considered
aeronautical, the airport sponsor prohibited this level of maintenance
and repair in T-hangars but provided an alternate location on the
airport. The FAA found that the airport sponsor's rules prohibiting
maintenance and repair in a T-hangar, including construction of a
homebuilt aircraft, did not violate the sponsor's grant assurances.
\3\ Ashton v. City of Concord, FAA Docket No. 16-99-09 (January
28, 2000) (Director's Determination and affirmed by Final Agency
There have been industry objections to the FAA's designation of any
aircraft construction stages as non-aeronautical. While the same
principles apply generally to large aircraft manufacturing, compliance
issues involving aircraft construction have typically been limited to
homebuilt aircraft construction at general aviation airports.
Commercial aircraft manufacturers use dedicated, purpose-built
manufacturing facilities, and questions of aeronautical use for these
facilities are generally resolved at the time of the initial lease. In
contrast, persons constructing homebuilt aircraft sometimes seek to
rent airport hangars designed for storage of operating aircraft and
easy access to a taxiway, even though it may be years before a
homebuilt aircraft kit will be able to take advantage of the convenient
access to the airfield.
The FAA is not proposing any change to existing policy other than
to clarify that final assembly of an aircraft, leading to the
completion of the aircraft to a point where it can be taxied, will be
considered an aeronautical use.
Proposed Policy and Request for Public Comment
The FAA intends to produce an agency policy on use of hangars and
related facilities at federally obligated airports in sufficient detail
to provide a clear and standardized guide for airport sponsors and FAA
compliance staff. The FAA is proposing a policy statement for public
comment based on the following general principles:
1. The primary goal of this policy is to protect federal investment
in federally obligated airports by ensuring aeronautical facilities are
available to aeronautical users. Aeronautical users requesting the use
of a hangar for aircraft storage should not be denied access because
the airport sponsor is permitting tenants to use hangars to store
vehicles or household items, or to operate non-aviation businesses.
2. A secondary goal of the policy is to ensure that airport
sponsors receive fair market rental for any approved use of airport
property for non-aviation purposes.
3. The primary purpose of a hangar in an aeronautical area of the
airport is aircraft storage or operation of an aeronautical service
business that requires maintenance or repair work on aircraft. If a
hangar is serving one of these purposes, then incidental storage of
non-aviation items that does not interfere with the primary purpose of
the hangar and occupies an insignificant amount of physical hangar
space will not be considered to constitute a violation of the grant
assurances. In such cases, incidental storage of non-aviation items
will be treated as having de minimis value (for purposes of compliance
with the self-sustaining assurance) and will not require the sponsor to
increase rent as a result of the storage of these incidental non-
4. If an airport's hangar capacity substantially exceeds aviation
demand (e.g., there are multiple vacant hangars and no requests to rent
them for aeronautical purposes), the sponsor may request and FAA may
approve interim non-aeronautical use of vacant hangars under the
provisions found in FAA Order 5190.6B, Chapter 22.6. FMV non-
aeronautical rental rates would apply to any non-aviation use.
5. Final, active assembly of an aircraft in the manufacturing or
homebuilt construction process, resulting in a completed, operational
aircraft requiring access to the airfield, is considered an
aeronautical activity for the purposes of this policy.
6. Using hangar space as a residence on a full-time or even
temporary basis is not a compatible land use, no matter where it is
located on the airport, and is not permitted.
7. Airport sponsors are expected to take measures to ensure that
aeronautical facilities on the airport are reserved for aeronautical
use. These measures should include a periodic inspection program to
ensure that the waiting time for those persons who are legitimately in
need of a hangar for aircraft storage is minimized.
8. Airport sponsors may adopt more stringent rules for use of
hangars than required by the grant assurances, based on proprietary
concerns for the safe and efficient use of airport property. However,
such rules must be reasonable and not unjustly discriminatory against
any aeronautical user. For example, an airport sponsor may limit
storage of vehicles in hangars if there is concern that vehicular
traffic on taxilanes or taxiways may create a safety hazard.
9. The sponsor's federal obligations do not protect non-
aeronautical users and/or storage of non-aeronautical items. Non-
aeronautical use is not a protected activity.
Proposed Policy and Request for Comments
In accordance with the above, the FAA proposes to adopt the
following policy statement on use of hangars at federally obligated
airports. The agency requests public comments on the proposed policy
statement, as described in the ``Address'' and ``Dates'' information in
this notice. Comments received by the due date will be considered in
the development of a final agency policy statement.
Use of Aeronautical Land and Facilities
This policy applies to all aircraft storage areas or facilities on
a federally obligated airport unless designated for non-aviation use on
an approved Airport Layout Plan or otherwise approved for non-aviation
use by the FAA. The policy statement generally refers to the use of
hangars since they are the type of aeronautical facility most often
involved in issues of non-aviation use. The policy applies to all users
of aircraft hangars, regardless of whether a user is an owner or lessee
of the hangar, including airport sponsors, municipalities, and other
The intent of this policy is to ensure that the Federal investment
in federally obligated airports is protected by making aeronautical
facilities available to aeronautical users, and to ensure that airport
sponsors receive fair market value for rental of approved non-aviation
use of airport property. Sponsors who fail to comply with grant
assurances and this policy may be subject to administrative sanctions
such as the denial of funding from current and future AIP grants.
II. Standards for Aeronautical Use of Hangars
Hangars located on airport property must be used for an
aeronautical purpose, or be available for use for one, unless otherwise
approved by the FAA.
Aeronautical uses for hangars include:
[cir] Storage of operational aircraft
[cir] Final assembly of aircraft
[cir] Short-term storage of non-operational aircraft for purposes of
maintenance, repair, or refurbishment
Provided the hangar is used primarily for aeronautical
purposes, an airport sponsor may permit limited, non-aeronautical items
to be stored in hangars provided the items are incidental to
aeronautical use of the hangar and occupy an insignificant amount of
hangar space (e.g., a small refrigerator). The incidental storage of
non-aeronautical items will be considered to be of de minimis value for
the purpose of assessing rent.
Generally, items are considered incidental if they:
[cir] Do not interfere with the aeronautical use of the hangar;
[cir] Do not displace the aeronautical contents of the hangar;
[cir] Do not impede access to aircraft or other aeronautical contents
of the hangar;
[cir] Do not require a larger hangar than would otherwise be necessary
if such items were not present;
[cir] Occupy an insignificant amount of hangar space;
[cir] Are owned by the hangar owner or tenant;
[cir] Are not used for non-aeronautical commercial purposes (i.e., the
tenant is not conducting a non-aeronautical business from the hangar
including storing inventory);
[cir] Are not stored in violation of airport rules and regulations.
Hangars should be leased with consideration of the size
and quantity of aircraft to be stored therein. To maximize the
availability of hangars for all aeronautical users, sponsors should
avoid leasing a hangar that is disproportionately large for the
aircraft to be stored in the hangar (i.e., hangars built to store
multiple aircraft should be used for multiple aircraft storage).
Hangars must not be used as a residence. The FAA
differentiates between a typical pilot resting facility or aircrew
quarters versus a hangar residence or hangar home. The former are
designed to be used for overnight and/or resting periods for aircrew,
and not as a permanent or even temporary residence. See FAA Order
5190.6B, Paragraph 20.5.b.
This policy on hangar use applies regardless of whether
the hangar occupant leases the hangar from the airport sponsor or
developer, or the hangar occupant constructed the hangar at their own
expense and holds a ground lease only. When designated aeronautical
land is made available for construction of hangars, the hangars built
on the land will be fully subject to the sponsor's obligations to use
aeronautical facilities for aeronautical use.
III. Approval for Non-Aeronautical Use of Hangars
Where hangars are unoccupied and there is no current aviation
demand for hangar space, the airport sponsor may request that FAA
approve an interim use of a hangar for non-aeronautical purposes for a
period no more than five years. Interim leases of unused hangars can
generate revenue for the airport and prevent deterioration of
facilities. FAA will review the request in accordance with Order
5190.6B, ] 22.6. Approved interim or concurrent revenue-production uses
must not interfere with safe and efficient airport operations and
sponsors should only agree to lease terms that allow the hangars to be
recovered on short notice for aeronautical purposes.
The airport sponsor is required to charge non-aeronautical fair
market rental fees for the non-aeronautical use of airport property,
even on an interim basis. (See Policies and Procedures Concerning
Airport Revenue, Sec. VII.C.)
IV. No Right to Non-Aeronautical Use
In the context of enforcement of the grant assurances, this policy
allows some incidental storage of non-aeronautical items in hangars.
However, the policy neither creates nor constitutes a right to store
non-aeronautical items in hangars. Airport sponsors may restrict or
prohibit storage of non-aeronautical items. Sponsors should consider
factors such as emergency access, fire codes, security, insurance, and
the impact of vehicular traffic on their surface areas when enacting
rules regarding hangar storage. In some cases, permitting certain
incidental non-aeronautical items in hangars could inhibit the
sponsor's ability to meet obligations associated with grant assurance
19, Operations and Maintenance. Sponsors should ensure that taxiways
and runways are not used for the vehicular transport of such items to
or from the hangars.
V. Sponsor Compliance Actions
It is expected that aeronautical facilities on an airport will be
available and used for aeronautical purposes in the normal course of
airport business, and that non-aeronautical uses will be the exception.
Sponsors should have a program to routinely monitor use of hangars and
take measures to eliminate and prevent unapproved non-aeronautical use
of hangars. Sponsors should ensure that length of time on a waiting
list of those legitimately in need of a hangar for aircraft storage is
minimized. Sponsors should also consider incorporating provisions in
airport leases, including aeronautical leases, to adjust rental rates
to FMV for any non-incidental non-aeronautical use of the leased
facilities. FAA personnel conducting a land use or compliance
inspection of an airport may request a copy of the sponsor's hangar use
program and evidence that the sponsor has limited hangars to aviation
Issued in Washington, DC, on July 15, 2014.
Randall S. Fiertz,
Director, Office of Airport Compliance and Management Analysis.
[FR Doc. 2014-17031 Filed 7-21-14; 8:45 am]
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